Mussolini’s Birthplace in Predappio


By Contested Histories Initiative

The small Italian town of Predappio has developed a controversial reputation as a site of neo-fascist ‘pilgrimage’ by virtue of its historical affiliation with the fascist dictator, Benito Mussolini. The town retains the peculiar distinction as both the birthplace of Mussolini and the location where he was eventually interred in… Read More

Salazar Statue in Maputo's Library

Salazar Statue in Maputo


By Contested Histories Initiative

A life-sized bronze statue of Portuguese dictator António de Oliveira Salazar (b. 1889-1970) currently stands in the courtyard of the National Library in Maputo, Mozambique. Its move to this location in 2002 is part of an eventful prior itinerary, charted below by drawing on various sources while acknowledging the presence… Read More

Monument Victory Bolzano

Victory Monument in Bolzano


By Contested Histories Initiative

The Victory Monument in Bolzano was erected on the orders of Benito Mussolini in 1928. Since then, it has been at the symbolic centre of ethnic clashes between the German- and Italian-speaking communities and a symbol of the unresolved legacy of Italian Fascism. Until recently, the monument has been one… Read More

Dr Karl Lueger monument in Vienna

Dr Karl Leuger Ring Street in Vienna


By Contested Histories Initiative

In Vienna, over 160 streets bear the names of controversial historical figures. One of these streets, once called Dr-Karl-Leuger-Ring, was named after a prominent anti-Semitic agitator whose ideology inspired the dogmatic policies of Adolf Hitler. In 2011, an archival report investigated the acts of controversial historical figures with names in… Read More

Stolpersteine dedicated to the Goldstein and Helbing families

Stumbling Stones in Munich


By Contested Histories Initiative

Stolpersteine or ‘stumbling stones’ are components of a project initiated by German artist Gunter Demnig in 1996 to commemorate victims of the Holocaust. The memorials, in the form of cobblestones installed in public streets, now number in the tens of thousands across Europe and beyond. However, they have also been… Read More

Mussert Wall with wooden ramps in Lunteren

Mussert’s Wall in Lunteren


By Contested Histories Initiative

In 1936, the Dutch fascist party NSB constructed a complex in the town of Lunteren called Mussert’s Wall (Muur van Mussert), where they would hold political rallies. After being neglected for decades after World War II, in 2015, a national discussion arose following requests by local and national heritage organisations… Read More

Human Impact of World War II

By Diversify Our Narrative 2021

This lesson plan should be precluded by an overview of the Second World War, and can be used as a supplementary lesson that offers a deeper lens into the war’s violence and its driving forces. Students should have a basic understanding of the historical context of the war, including its… Read More

Holocaust Memorial Days

An overview of remembrance and education in the OSCE region

By OSCE January 2020

This publication provides information on when, where and how OSCE participating States promote the commemoration and study of the Holocaust, including the genocide of Roma and Sinti, in line with their OSCE commitments. The information was provided via an online questionnaire disseminated by ODIHR to all participating States. Read More


The Competition

Transforming the Palazzo degli Uffici Finanziari Facade

By Autonomous Provincial Council of Bolzano-Bozen 2011

On 2nd February 2011, the Autonomous Provincial Council of Bolzano-Bozen announced a competition for ideas to transform the controversial fascist-era facade of the Palazzo degli Ufficio Finanziari. The competition was open to artists, architects, historians and anyone involved in the cultural sphere. The solution had to transform the bas-relief into… Read More

The Memory of the Crimes Committed by Totalitarian Regimes in Europe

Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and to the Council

By European Commission December 2010

The report aims to present how the Commission intends to play a meaningful role in this process and to provide a basis for further discussion on how the European Union can contribute to promoting the memory of the crimes committed by totalitarian regimes. It also aims to answer the request… Read More