Case Studies

To date, we have identified more than three hundred cases on five continents. Case Studies relate to a wide array of different historical legacies including: Colonialism, Enslavement, Racism, Fascism, Sectarianism, Anti-Semitism, Communism, Authoritarianism, Sexual Violence and others. To address these oft contested legacies, decision-makers and other parties have chosen various Remedies. This can take the form of complete removal of the monument, artistic intervention to alter the statue, or increased signage for contextualisation.

Case Studies focus on the historical background, history of the contestation, the decision-making process and the remedy employed. Once completed by our Researchers, Case Studies are internally reviewed by the Contested Histories Team before being sent out for external expert review by our Academic Committee, before being published. They are revised when there are new developments relating to the case to give the most accurate and up-to-date overview as possible.

Jan Pieterszoon Coen Hoorn
#235

Jan Pieterszoon Coen Statue in Hoorn

The Netherlands

Nicknamed the ‘Slaughterer of Banda,’ the figure of Jan Pieterszoon Coen has become increasingly contested in recent years. The statue of Jan Pieterszoon Coen in Hoorn has been a disputed monument sin… Read More

Jan Pieterszoon Coen Statue in Hoorn

Nicknamed the ‘Slaughterer of Banda,’ the figure of Jan Pieterszoon Coen has become increasingly contested in recent years. The statue of Jan Pieterszoon Coen in Hoorn has been a disputed monument sin… Read More
Group of Selk'nam People in Traditional Clothing
#31

Selk’nam Genocide Public Commemoration in Punta Arenas

Chile

The late nineteenth century saw the systematic killing of the Selk’nam indigenous group members at the hands of European settlers in Punta Arenas, Chile. Until 2007, the official state narrative surro… Read More

Selk’nam Genocide Public Commemoration in Punta Arenas

The late nineteenth century saw the systematic killing of the Selk’nam indigenous group members at the hands of European settlers in Punta Arenas, Chile. Until 2007, the official state narrative surro… Read More
Plaque from Minneapolis Park & Recreation for Lake Calhoun Bde Maka Saka
#213

Lake Calhoun in Minneapolis

USA

In 2015, a citizen advisory committee including several Indigenous activists proposed that ‘Lake Calhoun’—christened for John C. Calhoun, antebellum politician, slavery advocate, and proponent of the… Read More

Lake Calhoun in Minneapolis

In 2015, a citizen advisory committee including several Indigenous activists proposed that ‘Lake Calhoun’—christened for John C. Calhoun, antebellum politician, slavery advocate, and proponent of the… Read More
Monument for Theodore Roosevelt on horse with Indigenous People in New York
#186

Theodore Roosevelt Statue at the American Museum of Natural History in New York

USA

On 21 June 2021 plans were confirmed for the removal of the statue of Theodore Roosevelt, which had been standing outside the American Museum of Natural History since 1939. The eventual decision to re… Read More

Theodore Roosevelt Statue at the American Museum of Natural History in New York

On 21 June 2021 plans were confirmed for the removal of the statue of Theodore Roosevelt, which had been standing outside the American Museum of Natural History since 1939. The eventual decision to re… Read More
Isted Lion Statue in Flensburg
#48

Isted Lion in Flensburg

Germany

The Isted Lion, created to commemorate the Danish victory in the 1850 Battle of Isted, has been the subject of German-Danish debates about national and cultural identity in the historically contested… Read More

Isted Lion in Flensburg

The Isted Lion, created to commemorate the Danish victory in the 1850 Battle of Isted, has been the subject of German-Danish debates about national and cultural identity in the historically contested… Read More
Francisco Franco Statue in Melilla
#147

Francisco Franco Statue in Melilla

Spain

The death of Francisco Franco in 1975 brought to close a painful era in Spanish History. In 2007 Spain enacted the Historical Memory Law, which formally condemns the Franco Regime and mandates the rem… Read More

Francisco Franco Statue in Melilla

The death of Francisco Franco in 1975 brought to close a painful era in Spanish History. In 2007 Spain enacted the Historical Memory Law, which formally condemns the Franco Regime and mandates the rem… Read More
#40

Sebastián de Belálcazar Statue in Popayán

Colombia

The statue of Sebastian de Belalcazar, erected in 1940 in Popayan, Colombia, was torn down in September 2020 during a wave of protests. Local indigenous communities had long considered the statue as t… Read More

Sebastián de Belálcazar Statue in Popayán

The statue of Sebastian de Belalcazar, erected in 1940 in Popayan, Colombia, was torn down in September 2020 during a wave of protests. Local indigenous communities had long considered the statue as t… Read More
Statue of Lenin in Bishkek
#93

Lenin Statue in Bishkek

Kyrgyzstan

The Lenin Statue in Bishkek was erected in 1984, during the 60th anniversary of the Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic. Shortly after the fall of communism in 1991, all Lenin statues were taken down. Ho… Read More

Lenin Statue in Bishkek

The Lenin Statue in Bishkek was erected in 1984, during the 60th anniversary of the Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic. Shortly after the fall of communism in 1991, all Lenin statues were taken down. Ho… Read More
Statue of Faidherbe on horse at Lille
#57

Faidherbe Statue in Lille

France

For the bicentenary of the birth of French General Louis Faidherbe in 2018, a protest campaign named ‘Faidherbe Doit Tomber’ (Faidherbe Must Fall) was organised contesting the Monument au Général Faid… Read More

Faidherbe Statue in Lille

For the bicentenary of the birth of French General Louis Faidherbe in 2018, a protest campaign named ‘Faidherbe Doit Tomber’ (Faidherbe Must Fall) was organised contesting the Monument au Général Faid… Read More
King Frederik V Bust
#325

King Frederik V Bust in Copenhagen

Denmark

In autumn 2020 a bust of the 18th century King of Denmark and Norway Frederik V mysteriously disappeared from its pedestal at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. It was later found to have been thr… Read More

King Frederik V Bust in Copenhagen

In autumn 2020 a bust of the 18th century King of Denmark and Norway Frederik V mysteriously disappeared from its pedestal at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. It was later found to have been thr… Read More
#168

Redvers Buller Statue in Exeter, England

United Kingdom

Following the 2020 Black Lives Matter Protests, the statue of General Redvers Buller was reviewed by the Exeter City Task Force and slated for removal. This was due to Bullers controversial historical… Read More

Redvers Buller Statue in Exeter, England

Following the 2020 Black Lives Matter Protests, the statue of General Redvers Buller was reviewed by the Exeter City Task Force and slated for removal. This was due to Bullers controversial historical… Read More
#226

Sculpture for Mary Wollstonecraft in London, England

United Kingdom

A sculpture named A Sculpture for Mary Wollstonecraft, stands on Newington Green in London. It sparked controversy following its unveiling on November 10, 2020, as some argued that the depiction of th… Read More

Sculpture for Mary Wollstonecraft in London, England

A sculpture named A Sculpture for Mary Wollstonecraft, stands on Newington Green in London. It sparked controversy following its unveiling on November 10, 2020, as some argued that the depiction of th… Read More