Case Studies

To date, we have identified more than five hundred cases on five continents. Our Case Studies relate to a wide array of historical legacies, including Colonialism, Enslavement, Racism, Fascism, Sectarianism, Anti-Semitism, Communism, Authoritarianism, Sexual Violence and others. To address these often contested legacies, decision-makers and other parties have chosen various Remedies. This can take the form of complete removal of the monument, artistic intervention to alter the statue or increased signage for contextualisation.

Case Studies focus on the historical background, history of the contestation, the decision-making process and the remedy employed. Once our Researchers complete them, the Case Studies are internally reviewed by the Contested Histories Team before being sent out for external expert review by our Academic Committee before publication. They are revised when new developments relating to the case to give the most accurate and up-to-date overview possible.

Dr Karl Lueger monument in Vienna
#10

Dr Karl Leuger Ring Street in Vienna

Austria

In Vienna, over 160 streets bear the names of controversial historical figures. One of these streets, once called Dr-Karl-Leuger-Ring, was named after a prominent anti-Semitic agitator whose ideology… Read More

Dr Karl Leuger Ring Street in Vienna

In Vienna, over 160 streets bear the names of controversial historical figures. One of these streets, once called Dr-Karl-Leuger-Ring, was named after a prominent anti-Semitic agitator whose ideology… Read More
Colonel Nixo Statue in South Auckland
#116

Nixon Memorial in South Auckland

New Zealand

The Colonel Marmaduke George Nixon statue (‘Nixon memorial’) stands at the intersection of Mangere and Great South roads in Otahuhu, a suburb of South Auckland, New Zealand. A contentious figure in Ne… Read More

Nixon Memorial in South Auckland

The Colonel Marmaduke George Nixon statue (‘Nixon memorial’) stands at the intersection of Mangere and Great South roads in Otahuhu, a suburb of South Auckland, New Zealand. A contentious figure in Ne… Read More
King Leopold II equestrian monument in Brussels
#13

Leopold II Statue in Brussels

Belgium

The June 2020 global Black Lives Matter protests and the 60th anniversary of Congo’s independence on June 30th brought increased scrutiny of Belgium’s colonial past under the leadership of King… Read More

Leopold II Statue in Brussels

The June 2020 global Black Lives Matter protests and the 60th anniversary of Congo’s independence on June 30th brought increased scrutiny of Belgium’s colonial past under the leadership of King… Read More
Harvard University Widener Library
#181

Harvard’s Legacy of Slavery in Cambridge, Massachusetts

USA

In the past decade, Harvard University has taken great strides to acknowledge the legacy of slavery on campus. Slavery provided an impetus for the creation of resources at Harvard, and several enslave… Read More

Harvard’s Legacy of Slavery in Cambridge, Massachusetts

In the past decade, Harvard University has taken great strides to acknowledge the legacy of slavery on campus. Slavery provided an impetus for the creation of resources at Harvard, and several enslave… Read More
Stone Mountain Park Memorial in Georgia
#198

Stone Mountain Park Memorial in Georgia

USA

The Stone Mountain Park Memorial is the largest Confederate memorial in the U.S., and the controversy around it demonstrates that the American Civil War’s emancipatory purpose remains contested more t… Read More

Stone Mountain Park Memorial in Georgia

The Stone Mountain Park Memorial is the largest Confederate memorial in the U.S., and the controversy around it demonstrates that the American Civil War’s emancipatory purpose remains contested more t… Read More
Stolpersteine dedicated to the Goldstein and Helbing families
#63

Stumbling Stones in Munich

Germany

Stolpersteine or ‘stumbling stones’ are components of a project initiated by German artist Gunter Demnig in 1996 to commemorate victims of the Holocaust. The memorials, in the form of cobblestones ins… Read More

Stumbling Stones in Munich

Stolpersteine or ‘stumbling stones’ are components of a project initiated by German artist Gunter Demnig in 1996 to commemorate victims of the Holocaust. The memorials, in the form of cobblestones ins… Read More
Khala Goda Statue in Mumbai, India
#282

Khala Goda Statue in Mumbai

India

The Kala Ghoda (Black Horse) statue is a 16.7-foot-tall bronze statue in Mumbai, India, and a prominent relic of the country’s colonial era. The equestrian statue of King Edward VII became contentious… Read More

Khala Goda Statue in Mumbai

The Kala Ghoda (Black Horse) statue is a 16.7-foot-tall bronze statue in Mumbai, India, and a prominent relic of the country’s colonial era. The equestrian statue of King Edward VII became contentious… Read More
Shaheed Bhagat Singh Roundabout
#121

Shaheed Bhagat Singh Roundabout in Lahore

Pakistan

Commonly known as Fawara Chowk (Fountain Roundabout), the formal name, Shaheed Bhagat Singh Chowk roundabout, has been the source of contestation since 2016. The roundabout is directly adjacent to the… Read More

Shaheed Bhagat Singh Roundabout in Lahore

Commonly known as Fawara Chowk (Fountain Roundabout), the formal name, Shaheed Bhagat Singh Chowk roundabout, has been the source of contestation since 2016. The roundabout is directly adjacent to the… Read More
#236

Mullivaikkal Memorial at Jaffna University

Sri Lanka

On the night of January 9, 2021, students protested outside of Jaffna University against the university’s decision to destroy a memorial commemorating the Tamil victims of the three-decade-long civil… Read More

Mullivaikkal Memorial at Jaffna University

On the night of January 9, 2021, students protested outside of Jaffna University against the university’s decision to destroy a memorial commemorating the Tamil victims of the three-decade-long civil… Read More
Japanese American Memorial to Patriotism During World War II in Washington DC
#184

WWII Japanese American Memorial in Washington DC

USA

The Japanese American Memorial to Patriotism During World War II in Washington, D.C., United States, is a monument to the 112,581 Japanese Americans incarcerated by the U.S. Government during World Wa… Read More

WWII Japanese American Memorial in Washington DC

The Japanese American Memorial to Patriotism During World War II in Washington, D.C., United States, is a monument to the 112,581 Japanese Americans incarcerated by the U.S. Government during World Wa… Read More
Mussert Wall with wooden ramps in Lunteren
#112

Mussert’s Wall in Lunteren

Netherlands

In 1936, the Dutch fascist party NSB constructed a complex in the town of Lunteren called Mussert’s Wall (Muur van Mussert), where they would hold political rallies. After being neglected for decades… Read More

Mussert’s Wall in Lunteren

In 1936, the Dutch fascist party NSB constructed a complex in the town of Lunteren called Mussert’s Wall (Muur van Mussert), where they would hold political rallies. After being neglected for decades… Read More
Old Slave Market in Lagos
#130

Old Slave Market in Lagos

Portugal

Hiding in plain sight in Lagos’ central square lies the Antigo Mercado de Escravos, the Old Slave Market, which hosts a unique museum. The building is situated in the square–formerly a beach–where ens… Read More

Old Slave Market in Lagos

Hiding in plain sight in Lagos’ central square lies the Antigo Mercado de Escravos, the Old Slave Market, which hosts a unique museum. The building is situated in the square–formerly a beach–where ens… Read More