Case Studies

To date, we have identified more than five hundred cases on five continents. Our Case Studies relate to a wide array of historical legacies, including Colonialism, Enslavement, Racism, Fascism, Sectarianism, Anti-Semitism, Communism, Authoritarianism, Sexual Violence and others. To address these often contested legacies, decision-makers and other parties have chosen various Remedies. This can take the form of complete removal of the monument, artistic intervention to alter the statue or increased signage for contextualisation.

Case Studies focus on the historical background, history of the contestation, the decision-making process and the remedy employed. Once our Researchers complete them, the Case Studies are internally reviewed by the Contested Histories Team before being sent out for external expert review by our Academic Committee before publication. They are revised when new developments relating to the case to give the most accurate and up-to-date overview possible.

Francisco Franco Statue in Melilla
#147

Francisco Franco Statue in Melilla

Spain

The death of Francisco Franco in 1975 brought to close a painful era in Spanish History. In 2007 Spain enacted the Historical Memory Law, which formally condemns the Franco Regime and mandates the rem… Read More

Francisco Franco Statue in Melilla

The death of Francisco Franco in 1975 brought to close a painful era in Spanish History. In 2007 Spain enacted the Historical Memory Law, which formally condemns the Franco Regime and mandates the rem… Read More
#40

Sebastián de Belálcazar Statue in Popayán

Colombia

The statue of Sebastian de Belalcazar, erected in 1940 in Popayan, Colombia, was torn down in September 2020 during a wave of protests. Local indigenous communities had long considered the statue as t… Read More

Sebastián de Belálcazar Statue in Popayán

The statue of Sebastian de Belalcazar, erected in 1940 in Popayan, Colombia, was torn down in September 2020 during a wave of protests. Local indigenous communities had long considered the statue as t… Read More
Statue of Lenin in Bishkek
#93

Lenin Statue in Bishkek

Kyrgyzstan

The Lenin Statue in Bishkek was erected in 1984, during the 60th anniversary of the Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic. Shortly after the fall of communism in 1991, all Lenin statues were taken down. Ho… Read More

Lenin Statue in Bishkek

The Lenin Statue in Bishkek was erected in 1984, during the 60th anniversary of the Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic. Shortly after the fall of communism in 1991, all Lenin statues were taken down. Ho… Read More
Statue of Faidherbe on horse at Lille
#57

Faidherbe Statue in Lille

France

For the bicentenary of the birth of French General Louis Faidherbe in 2018, a protest campaign named ‘Faidherbe Doit Tomber’ (Faidherbe Must Fall) was organised contesting the Monument au Général Faid… Read More

Faidherbe Statue in Lille

For the bicentenary of the birth of French General Louis Faidherbe in 2018, a protest campaign named ‘Faidherbe Doit Tomber’ (Faidherbe Must Fall) was organised contesting the Monument au Général Faid… Read More
King Frederik V Bust
#325

King Frederik V Bust in Copenhagen

Denmark

In autumn 2020 a bust of the 18th century King of Denmark and Norway Frederik V mysteriously disappeared from its pedestal at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. It was later found to have been thr… Read More

King Frederik V Bust in Copenhagen

In autumn 2020 a bust of the 18th century King of Denmark and Norway Frederik V mysteriously disappeared from its pedestal at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. It was later found to have been thr… Read More
#168

Redvers Buller Statue in Exeter, England

United Kingdom

Following the 2020 Black Lives Matter Protests, the statue of General Redvers Buller was reviewed by the Exeter City Task Force and slated for removal. This was due to Bullers controversial historical… Read More

Redvers Buller Statue in Exeter, England

Following the 2020 Black Lives Matter Protests, the statue of General Redvers Buller was reviewed by the Exeter City Task Force and slated for removal. This was due to Bullers controversial historical… Read More
#226

Sculpture for Mary Wollstonecraft in London, England

United Kingdom

A sculpture named A Sculpture for Mary Wollstonecraft, stands on Newington Green in London. It sparked controversy following its unveiling on November 10, 2020, as some argued that the depiction of th… Read More

Sculpture for Mary Wollstonecraft in London, England

A sculpture named A Sculpture for Mary Wollstonecraft, stands on Newington Green in London. It sparked controversy following its unveiling on November 10, 2020, as some argued that the depiction of th… Read More
#228

J. Marion Sims Statue in New York

United States of America

In Central Park in New York, New York, a statue of physician J. Marion Sims was raised in 1934. Sims was credited with highly impactful procedures in gynaecology; However, many of these procedures wer… Read More

J. Marion Sims Statue in New York

In Central Park in New York, New York, a statue of physician J. Marion Sims was raised in 1934. Sims was credited with highly impactful procedures in gynaecology; However, many of these procedures wer… Read More
#30

Plaza Baquedano & General Baquedano Monument in Santiago

Chile

Plaza Baquedano at the centre of Santiago was traditionally the central meeting point for protests and celebrations in the Chilean capital. Since the outbreak of social protests in October 2019, the s… Read More

Plaza Baquedano & General Baquedano Monument in Santiago

Plaza Baquedano at the centre of Santiago was traditionally the central meeting point for protests and celebrations in the Chilean capital. Since the outbreak of social protests in October 2019, the s… Read More
#144

Valley of the Fallen in Madrid

Spain

The Valley of the Fallen in Madrid was built in the 1940s by order of dictator Francisco Franco and, was in part, built by forced labour from political prisoners. Its aim was to be a mausoleum for vic… Read More

Valley of the Fallen in Madrid

The Valley of the Fallen in Madrid was built in the 1940s by order of dictator Francisco Franco and, was in part, built by forced labour from political prisoners. Its aim was to be a mausoleum for vic… Read More
Japanese Yasukuni shrine viewed from the side
#90

Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo

Japan

The Yasukuni Shrine, originally established in 1869, became controversial after the Second World War when 14 Class A War Criminals were enshrined at the site. Aside from the 14 war criminals, over 2.5… Read More

Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo

The Yasukuni Shrine, originally established in 1869, became controversial after the Second World War when 14 Class A War Criminals were enshrined at the site. Aside from the 14 war criminals, over 2.5… Read More
#290

Leopold II Statue in Kinshasa

Democratic Republic of Congo

In 1967, an equestrian statue of Belgian King Leopold II, the owner and absolute ruler of the Free State of Congo from 1886 to 1908, was taken down and discarded on the outskirts of Kinshasa, in today… Read More

Leopold II Statue in Kinshasa

In 1967, an equestrian statue of Belgian King Leopold II, the owner and absolute ruler of the Free State of Congo from 1886 to 1908, was taken down and discarded on the outskirts of Kinshasa, in today… Read More