Case Studies

To date, we have identified more than three hundred cases on five continents. Case Studies relate to a wide array of different historical legacies including: Colonialism, Enslavement, Racism, Fascism, Sectarianism, Anti-Semitism, Communism, Authoritarianism, Sexual Violence and others. To address these oft contested legacies, decision-makers and other parties have chosen various Remedies. This can take the form of complete removal of the monument, artistic intervention to alter the statue, or increased signage for contextualisation.

Case Studies focus on the historical background, history of the contestation, the decision-making process and the remedy employed. Once completed by our Researchers, Case Studies are internally reviewed by the Contested Histories Team before being sent out for external expert review by our Academic Committee, before being published. They are revised when there are new developments relating to the case to give the most accurate and up-to-date overview as possible.

Cross section view of stone Pavois Monument encased in concrete shell exhibited in museum in Paris
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Monument to the Dead (Le Pavois) in Algiers

Algeria

Built after the First World War, ‘Le Pavois’ was meant to symbolise unification between Europe and Africa. However, to the people of Algier, it is a symbol of the colonial past and French oppression. Read More

Monument to the Dead (Le Pavois) in Algiers

Built after the First World War, ‘Le Pavois’ was meant to symbolise unification between Europe and Africa. However, to the people of Algier, it is a symbol of the colonial past and French oppression. Read More
Bronze statue of soldier at Tallin Military Cemetary in Estonia
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Bronze Soldier Statue in Tallinn

Estonia

In late April 2007, a series of violent street protests involving arson and looting erupted over plans to relocate a bronze statue of a Red Army soldier from a park in central Tallinn to a military ce… Read More

Bronze Soldier Statue in Tallinn

In late April 2007, a series of violent street protests involving arson and looting erupted over plans to relocate a bronze statue of a Red Army soldier from a park in central Tallinn to a military ce… Read More
Two statues of human figures against a background of the Kars mountains
#155

Monument to Humanity in Kars

Turkey

The Monument to Humanity was a 30-metre statue that played a prominent role in the skyline of the city of Kars. In the wake of the 2011 Turkish General Election, the then-Prime Minister Recep Tayyip E… Read More

Monument to Humanity in Kars

The Monument to Humanity was a 30-metre statue that played a prominent role in the skyline of the city of Kars. In the wake of the 2011 Turkish General Election, the then-Prime Minister Recep Tayyip E… Read More
Statues of Sir Stamford Raffles, Munshi Abdullah, Tan Tock Seng, Naraina Pillai and Sang Nula Utama on pedestals at the Rafflers' landing site in Singapore
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Sir Stamford Raffles Statue on Singapore River

Singapore

In 2019, Singapore commemorated its bicentennial and the 200th anniversary of the arrival of Sir Stamford Raffles to its shores. The innovative approach to addressing the statue of Raffles and the sta… Read More

Sir Stamford Raffles Statue on Singapore River

In 2019, Singapore commemorated its bicentennial and the 200th anniversary of the arrival of Sir Stamford Raffles to its shores. The innovative approach to addressing the statue of Raffles and the sta… Read More
Section of the National Stadium of Chilie in Santiago
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The Stands of Dignity and Escotilla 8 in Santiago

Chile

Following the military coup against Salvador Allende in September 1973, the Chilean Armed Forces transformed the former stadium of Estadio Nacional Julio Martínez Prádanos into the country’s largest d… Read More

The Stands of Dignity and Escotilla 8 in Santiago

Following the military coup against Salvador Allende in September 1973, the Chilean Armed Forces transformed the former stadium of Estadio Nacional Julio Martínez Prádanos into the country’s largest d… Read More
Statue of Francis Light with arm on hip
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Francis Light Statue in George Town in Penang

Malaysia

In the wake of the Black Lives Matter (BLM) protests of 2020, the statue of the founder of the British colony of Penang, Francis Light came under increased scrutiny and public vandalisation, which spa… Read More

Francis Light Statue in George Town in Penang

In the wake of the Black Lives Matter (BLM) protests of 2020, the statue of the founder of the British colony of Penang, Francis Light came under increased scrutiny and public vandalisation, which spa… Read More
Statue of Stalin infront of Museum in Gori, Georgia
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Stalin Statue in Gori

Georgia

The removal of the Stalin statue from the central square in Gori represents a top-down policy implementation approach to a contested historical monument. Such implementations of Georgia’s Freedom Char… Read More

Stalin Statue in Gori

The removal of the Stalin statue from the central square in Gori represents a top-down policy implementation approach to a contested historical monument. Such implementations of Georgia’s Freedom Char… Read More
Statue of Hans Egede with staff blue sky and sea with wreath hanging on it
#27

Hans Egede Statue in Nuuk, Kalaallit Nunaat

Greenland

The vandalism of the Hans Egede statue in June 2020, and subsequent discussions surrounding the suitability of its positioning upon a mountaintop in Nuuk, catalysed debate over the colonial past, pres… Read More

Hans Egede Statue in Nuuk, Kalaallit Nunaat

The vandalism of the Hans Egede statue in June 2020, and subsequent discussions surrounding the suitability of its positioning upon a mountaintop in Nuuk, catalysed debate over the colonial past, pres… Read More
An Archival image of the Coolela Battlefield Memorial
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Coolela Battlefield Memorial in Mandlakazi (Manjacaze)

Mozambique

This memorial commemorates the 1895 Battle of Coolela, fought in Mozambique between the Portuguese colonial administration and their African allies, and the Gaza Empire led by Emperor Ngungunyane. The… Read More

Coolela Battlefield Memorial in Mandlakazi (Manjacaze)

This memorial commemorates the 1895 Battle of Coolela, fought in Mozambique between the Portuguese colonial administration and their African allies, and the Gaza Empire led by Emperor Ngungunyane. The… Read More
Statue of Cecil Rhodes sitting locaded on steps of the Univerity of Cape Town campus.
#104

Cecil John Rhodes Statue at the University of Cape Town in Cape Town

South Africa

In 2015 the #Rhodesmustfall protests erupted at the University of Cape Town in South Africa. The resulting debate and movement soon spread globally, with similar protests occurring at the University o… Read More

Cecil John Rhodes Statue at the University of Cape Town in Cape Town

In 2015 the #Rhodesmustfall protests erupted at the University of Cape Town in South Africa. The resulting debate and movement soon spread globally, with similar protests occurring at the University o… Read More
Statue of Catherine the Great in Odessa Ukraine on column with three men around base.
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Monument to Catherine II / Monument to the Founders of Odessa in Odesa

Ukraine

The Monuments to the Odessa Founders features prominently Catherine II of Russia and the men who assisted in the creation of the Russian Empire’s new southern frontier in Ukraine. The monument w… Read More

Monument to Catherine II / Monument to the Founders of Odessa in Odesa

The Monuments to the Odessa Founders features prominently Catherine II of Russia and the men who assisted in the creation of the Russian Empire’s new southern frontier in Ukraine. The monument w… Read More
Statue of Lord Nelson with metal railings around it in Barbados
#11

Admiral Horatio Nelson Statue in Bridgetown

Barbados

Originally erected in 1813, the statue of British Colonial Admiral Horatio Nelson, enjoyed 206 years of undisturbed tenure in the centre of Bridgetown. However, in recent years Barbados has undergone… Read More

Admiral Horatio Nelson Statue in Bridgetown

Originally erected in 1813, the statue of British Colonial Admiral Horatio Nelson, enjoyed 206 years of undisturbed tenure in the centre of Bridgetown. However, in recent years Barbados has undergone… Read More