Case Studies

To date, we have identified more than three hundred cases on five continents. Case Studies relate to a wide array of different historical legacies including: Colonialism, Enslavement, Racism, Fascism, Sectarianism, Anti-Semitism, Communism, Authoritarianism, Sexual Violence and others. To address these oft contested legacies, decision-makers and other parties have chosen various Remedies. This can take the form of complete removal of the monument, artistic intervention to alter the statue, or increased signage for contextualisation.

Case Studies focus on the historical background, history of the contestation, the decision-making process and the remedy employed. Once completed by our Researchers, Case Studies are internally reviewed by the Contested Histories Team before being sent out for external expert review by our Academic Committee, before being published. They are revised when there are new developments relating to the case to give the most accurate and up-to-date overview as possible.

#228

J. Marion Sims Statue in New York

United States of America

In Central Park in New York, New York, a statue of physician J. Marion Sims was raised in 1934. Sims was credited with highly impactful procedures in gynaecology; However, many of these procedures wer… Read More

J. Marion Sims Statue in New York

In Central Park in New York, New York, a statue of physician J. Marion Sims was raised in 1934. Sims was credited with highly impactful procedures in gynaecology; However, many of these procedures wer… Read More
#30

Plaza Baquedano & General Baquedano Monument in Santiago

Chile

Plaza Baquedano at the centre of Santiago was traditionally the central meeting point for protests and celebrations in the Chilean capital. Since the outbreak of social protests in October 2019, the s… Read More

Plaza Baquedano & General Baquedano Monument in Santiago

Plaza Baquedano at the centre of Santiago was traditionally the central meeting point for protests and celebrations in the Chilean capital. Since the outbreak of social protests in October 2019, the s… Read More
#144

Valley of the Fallen in Madrid

Spain

The Valley of the Fallen in Madrid was built in the 1940s by order of dictator Francisco Franco and, was in part, built by forced labour from political prisoners. Its aim was to be a mausoleum for vic… Read More

Valley of the Fallen in Madrid

The Valley of the Fallen in Madrid was built in the 1940s by order of dictator Francisco Franco and, was in part, built by forced labour from political prisoners. Its aim was to be a mausoleum for vic… Read More
Japanese Yasukuni shrine viewed from the side
#90

Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo

Japan

The Yasukuni Shrine, originally established in 1869, became controversial after the Second World War when 14 Class A War Criminals were enshrined at the site. Aside from the 14 war criminals, over 2.5… Read More

Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo

The Yasukuni Shrine, originally established in 1869, became controversial after the Second World War when 14 Class A War Criminals were enshrined at the site. Aside from the 14 war criminals, over 2.5… Read More
#290

Leopold II Statue in Kinshasa

Democratic Republic of Congo

In 1967, an equestrian statue of Belgian King Leopold II, the owner and absolute ruler of the Free State of Congo from 1886 to 1908, was taken down and discarded on the outskirts of Kinshasa, in today… Read More

Leopold II Statue in Kinshasa

In 1967, an equestrian statue of Belgian King Leopold II, the owner and absolute ruler of the Free State of Congo from 1886 to 1908, was taken down and discarded on the outskirts of Kinshasa, in today… Read More
Equestian Statue of Habib Bourgiba waving
#154

Habib Bourguiba Statue in Tunis

Tunisia

After 30 years since the statue of Tunisia’s first president Habib Bourguiba was removed, it returned to central Tunis in June 2016. The return of the statue was intended to be a grand gesture of patr… Read More

Habib Bourguiba Statue in Tunis

After 30 years since the statue of Tunisia’s first president Habib Bourguiba was removed, it returned to central Tunis in June 2016. The return of the statue was intended to be a grand gesture of patr… Read More
#84

Mussolini Bas-Relief in Bolzano

Italy

Unlike many monuments of past fascist leaders that have been eradicated throughout Europe, Bolzano, the capital of South Tyrol, Italy, still includes a monumental bas-relief that depicts Benito Mussol… Read More

Mussolini Bas-Relief in Bolzano

Unlike many monuments of past fascist leaders that have been eradicated throughout Europe, Bolzano, the capital of South Tyrol, Italy, still includes a monumental bas-relief that depicts Benito Mussol… Read More
#142

Statue of Peace in Seoul

South Korea

The Statue of Peace in Seoul, South Korea, is among the most iconic and contested statues dedicated to ‘comfort women’, a euphemism for women who were sexually exploited by the Japanese military durin… Read More

Statue of Peace in Seoul

The Statue of Peace in Seoul, South Korea, is among the most iconic and contested statues dedicated to ‘comfort women’, a euphemism for women who were sexually exploited by the Japanese military durin… Read More
#101

Monument to Absence in Mexico City

Mexico

The Monument to Absence commemorates the 1968 Tlatelolco Massacre when governmentforces opened fire on a student protest at Mexico City’s Plaza de las Tres Culturas (Square of theThree Cultures). The… Read More

Monument to Absence in Mexico City

The Monument to Absence commemorates the 1968 Tlatelolco Massacre when governmentforces opened fire on a student protest at Mexico City’s Plaza de las Tres Culturas (Square of theThree Cultures). The… Read More
Statue of Chiang sitting cross legged with two Taiwan flags on either side
#154

Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall in Taipei City

Taiwan

The Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall in Taipei City, Taiwan opened to the public in 1980, five years after Taiwan’s first president Chiang Kai-shek’s death, in honour of Chiang’s legacies after he establ… Read More

Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall in Taipei City

The Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall in Taipei City, Taiwan opened to the public in 1980, five years after Taiwan’s first president Chiang Kai-shek’s death, in honour of Chiang’s legacies after he establ… Read More
Statue of Women and Man holding a child elevated above the Dakar Skyline
#247

African Renaissance Monument in Dakar

Senegal

The African Renaissance Monument is a 50-meter tall statue in Dakar, Senegal, erected in 2010 as the project of then-President Abdoulaye Wade. It serves to commemorate the ‘African Renaissance,’… Read More

African Renaissance Monument in Dakar

The African Renaissance Monument is a 50-meter tall statue in Dakar, Senegal, erected in 2010 as the project of then-President Abdoulaye Wade. It serves to commemorate the ‘African Renaissance,’… Read More
A statue of Robert Towns sits beside a tree.
#6

Robert Towns Statue in Townsville

Australia

On June 22, 2020 the statue of Townsville’s founder and namesake Robert Towns was vandalised by the smearing of red paint on his hands to symbolise blood. The vandalisation formed part of a wider move… Read More

Robert Towns Statue in Townsville

On June 22, 2020 the statue of Townsville’s founder and namesake Robert Towns was vandalised by the smearing of red paint on his hands to symbolise blood. The vandalisation formed part of a wider move… Read More