Case Studies

To date, we have identified more than five hundred cases on five continents. Our Case Studies relate to a wide array of historical legacies, including colonialism, enslavement, racism, fascism, sectarianism, anti-semitism, communism, authoritarianism, sexual violence and others. To address these often contested legacies, decision-makers and other parties have chosen various remedies. This can take the form of complete removal of the monument, artistic intervention to alter the statue or increased signage for contextualisation.

Case Studies focus on the historical background, history of the contestation, the decision-making process and the remedy employed. Once our Researchers complete them, the Case Studies are internally reviewed by the Contested Histories Team before being sent out for external expert review by our Academic Committee before publication. They are revised when new developments relating to the case to give the most accurate and up-to-date overview possible.

Stolpersteine dedicated to the Goldstein and Helbing families
#63

Stumbling Stones in Munich

Germany

Stolpersteine or ‘stumbling stones’ are components of a project initiated by German artist Gunter Demnig in 1996 to commemorate victims of the Holocaust. The memorials, in the form of cobblestones ins… Read More

Stumbling Stones in Munich

Stolpersteine or ‘stumbling stones’ are components of a project initiated by German artist Gunter Demnig in 1996 to commemorate victims of the Holocaust. The memorials, in the form of cobblestones ins… Read More
Khala Goda Statue in Mumbai, India
#282

Khala Goda Statue in Mumbai

India

The Kala Ghoda (Black Horse) statue is a 16.7-foot-tall bronze statue in Mumbai, India, and a prominent relic of the country’s colonial era. The equestrian statue of King Edward VII became contentious… Read More

Khala Goda Statue in Mumbai

The Kala Ghoda (Black Horse) statue is a 16.7-foot-tall bronze statue in Mumbai, India, and a prominent relic of the country’s colonial era. The equestrian statue of King Edward VII became contentious… Read More
Shaheed Bhagat Singh Roundabout
#121

Shaheed Bhagat Singh Roundabout in Lahore

Pakistan

Commonly known as Fawara Chowk (Fountain Roundabout), the formal name, Shaheed Bhagat Singh Chowk roundabout, has been the source of contestation since 2016. The roundabout is directly adjacent to the… Read More

Shaheed Bhagat Singh Roundabout in Lahore

Commonly known as Fawara Chowk (Fountain Roundabout), the formal name, Shaheed Bhagat Singh Chowk roundabout, has been the source of contestation since 2016. The roundabout is directly adjacent to the… Read More
#236

Mullivaikkal Memorial at Jaffna University

Sri Lanka

On the night of January 9, 2021, students protested outside of Jaffna University against the university’s decision to destroy a memorial commemorating the Tamil victims of the three-decade-long civil… Read More

Mullivaikkal Memorial at Jaffna University

On the night of January 9, 2021, students protested outside of Jaffna University against the university’s decision to destroy a memorial commemorating the Tamil victims of the three-decade-long civil… Read More
Japanese American Memorial to Patriotism During World War II in Washington DC
#184

WWII Japanese American Memorial in Washington DC

USA

The Japanese American Memorial to Patriotism During World War II in Washington, D.C., United States, is a monument to the 112,581 Japanese Americans incarcerated by the U.S. Government during World Wa… Read More

WWII Japanese American Memorial in Washington DC

The Japanese American Memorial to Patriotism During World War II in Washington, D.C., United States, is a monument to the 112,581 Japanese Americans incarcerated by the U.S. Government during World Wa… Read More
Mussert Wall with wooden ramps in Lunteren
#112

Mussert’s Wall in Lunteren

Netherlands

In 1936, the Dutch fascist party NSB constructed a complex in the town of Lunteren called Mussert’s Wall (Muur van Mussert), where they would hold political rallies. After being neglected for decades… Read More

Mussert’s Wall in Lunteren

In 1936, the Dutch fascist party NSB constructed a complex in the town of Lunteren called Mussert’s Wall (Muur van Mussert), where they would hold political rallies. After being neglected for decades… Read More
Old Slave Market in Lagos
#130

Old Slave Market in Lagos

Portugal

Hiding in plain sight in Lagos’ central square lies the Antigo Mercado de Escravos, the Old Slave Market, which hosts a unique museum. The building is situated in the square–formerly a beach–where ens… Read More

Old Slave Market in Lagos

Hiding in plain sight in Lagos’ central square lies the Antigo Mercado de Escravos, the Old Slave Market, which hosts a unique museum. The building is situated in the square–formerly a beach–where ens… Read More
van Riebeecks wild almond hedge in Cape Town
#139

Van Riebeeck’s Hedge in Cape Town

South Africa

Jan van Riebeeck arrived at Cape of Good Hope in 1652. His mission was to create a station for the Dutch East India Company’s ships. This meant colonising the lands inhabited by the Khoikhoi. To keep… Read More

Van Riebeeck’s Hedge in Cape Town

Jan van Riebeeck arrived at Cape of Good Hope in 1652. His mission was to create a station for the Dutch East India Company’s ships. This meant colonising the lands inhabited by the Khoikhoi. To keep… Read More
Jose Miguel Gomez Monument in La Habana
#281

José Miguel Gómez Statue in La Habana

Cuba

José Miguel Gómez was a celebrated military general who led Cuban forces during the wars of independence against Spain in the 19th century and served as Cuba’s second president between 1909 and 1913. Read More

José Miguel Gómez Statue in La Habana

José Miguel Gómez was a celebrated military general who led Cuban forces during the wars of independence against Spain in the 19th century and served as Cuba’s second president between 1909 and 1913. Read More
Cecil Rhodes Grave in Matobo National Park
#222

Cecil Rhodes Gravesite in Matobo Natural Park

Zimbabwe

In 1902 as requested in his last will and testament, British imperialist Cecil John Rhodes was buried atop a granite hill in Zimbabwe’s world-famous Matobo National Park. Almost 120 years later,… Read More

Cecil Rhodes Gravesite in Matobo Natural Park

In 1902 as requested in his last will and testament, British imperialist Cecil John Rhodes was buried atop a granite hill in Zimbabwe’s world-famous Matobo National Park. Almost 120 years later,… Read More
Jan Pieterszoon Coen Hoorn
#235

Jan Pieterszoon Coen Statue in Hoorn

The Netherlands

Nicknamed the ‘Slaughterer of Banda,’ the figure of Jan Pieterszoon Coen has become increasingly contested in recent years. The statue of Jan Pieterszoon Coen in Hoorn has been a disputed monument sin… Read More

Jan Pieterszoon Coen Statue in Hoorn

Nicknamed the ‘Slaughterer of Banda,’ the figure of Jan Pieterszoon Coen has become increasingly contested in recent years. The statue of Jan Pieterszoon Coen in Hoorn has been a disputed monument sin… Read More
Group of Selk'nam People in Traditional Clothing
#31

Selk’nam Genocide Public Commemoration in Punta Arenas

Chile

The late nineteenth century saw the systematic killing of the Selk’nam indigenous group members at the hands of European settlers in Punta Arenas, Chile. Until 2007, the official state narrative surro… Read More

Selk’nam Genocide Public Commemoration in Punta Arenas

The late nineteenth century saw the systematic killing of the Selk’nam indigenous group members at the hands of European settlers in Punta Arenas, Chile. Until 2007, the official state narrative surro… Read More