Case Studies

To date, we have identified more than five hundred cases on five continents. Our Case Studies relate to a wide array of historical legacies, including Colonialism, Enslavement, Racism, Fascism, Sectarianism, Anti-Semitism, Communism, Authoritarianism, Sexual Violence and others. To address these often contested legacies, decision-makers and other parties have chosen various Remedies. This can take the form of complete removal of the monument, artistic intervention to alter the statue or increased signage for contextualisation.

Case Studies focus on the historical background, history of the contestation, the decision-making process and the remedy employed. Once our Researchers complete them, the Case Studies are internally reviewed by the Contested Histories Team before being sent out for external expert review by our Academic Committee before publication. They are revised when new developments relating to the case to give the most accurate and up-to-date overview possible.

Equestian Statue of Habib Bourgiba waving
#154

Habib Bourguiba Statue in Tunis

Tunisia

After 30 years since the statue of Tunisia’s first president Habib Bourguiba was removed, it returned to central Tunis in June 2016. The return of the statue was intended to be a grand gesture of patr… Read More

Habib Bourguiba Statue in Tunis

After 30 years since the statue of Tunisia’s first president Habib Bourguiba was removed, it returned to central Tunis in June 2016. The return of the statue was intended to be a grand gesture of patr… Read More
#84

Mussolini Bas-Relief in Bolzano

Italy

Unlike many monuments of past fascist leaders that have been eradicated throughout Europe, Bolzano, the capital of South Tyrol, Italy, still includes a monumental bas-relief that depicts Benito Mussol… Read More

Mussolini Bas-Relief in Bolzano

Unlike many monuments of past fascist leaders that have been eradicated throughout Europe, Bolzano, the capital of South Tyrol, Italy, still includes a monumental bas-relief that depicts Benito Mussol… Read More
#142

Statue of Peace in Seoul

South Korea

The Statue of Peace in Seoul, South Korea, is among the most iconic and contested statues dedicated to ‘comfort women’, a euphemism for women who were sexually exploited by the Japanese military durin… Read More

Statue of Peace in Seoul

The Statue of Peace in Seoul, South Korea, is among the most iconic and contested statues dedicated to ‘comfort women’, a euphemism for women who were sexually exploited by the Japanese military durin… Read More
#101

Monument to Absence in Mexico City

Mexico

The Monument to Absence commemorates the 1968 Tlatelolco Massacre when governmentforces opened fire on a student protest at Mexico City’s Plaza de las Tres Culturas (Square of theThree Cultures). The… Read More

Monument to Absence in Mexico City

The Monument to Absence commemorates the 1968 Tlatelolco Massacre when governmentforces opened fire on a student protest at Mexico City’s Plaza de las Tres Culturas (Square of theThree Cultures). The… Read More
Statue of Chiang sitting cross legged with two Taiwan flags on either side
#154

Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall in Taipei City

Taiwan

The Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall in Taipei City, Taiwan opened to the public in 1980, five years after Taiwan’s first president Chiang Kai-shek’s death, in honour of Chiang’s legacies after he establ… Read More

Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall in Taipei City

The Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall in Taipei City, Taiwan opened to the public in 1980, five years after Taiwan’s first president Chiang Kai-shek’s death, in honour of Chiang’s legacies after he establ… Read More
Statue of Women and Man holding a child elevated above the Dakar Skyline
#247

African Renaissance Monument in Dakar

Senegal

The African Renaissance Monument is a 50-meter tall statue in Dakar, Senegal, erected in 2010 as the project of then-President Abdoulaye Wade. It serves to commemorate the ‘African Renaissance,’… Read More

African Renaissance Monument in Dakar

The African Renaissance Monument is a 50-meter tall statue in Dakar, Senegal, erected in 2010 as the project of then-President Abdoulaye Wade. It serves to commemorate the ‘African Renaissance,’… Read More
A statue of Robert Towns sits beside a tree.
#6

Robert Towns Statue in Townsville

Australia

On June 22, 2020 the statue of Townsville’s founder and namesake Robert Towns was vandalised by the smearing of red paint on his hands to symbolise blood. The vandalisation formed part of a wider move… Read More

Robert Towns Statue in Townsville

On June 22, 2020 the statue of Townsville’s founder and namesake Robert Towns was vandalised by the smearing of red paint on his hands to symbolise blood. The vandalisation formed part of a wider move… Read More
Cross section view of stone Pavois Monument encased in concrete shell exhibited in museum in Paris
#2

Monument to the Dead (Le Pavois) in Algiers

Algeria

Built after the First World War, ‘Le Pavois’ was meant to symbolise unification between Europe and Africa. However, to the people of Algier, it is a symbol of the colonial past and French oppression. Read More

Monument to the Dead (Le Pavois) in Algiers

Built after the First World War, ‘Le Pavois’ was meant to symbolise unification between Europe and Africa. However, to the people of Algier, it is a symbol of the colonial past and French oppression. Read More
Bronze statue of soldier at Tallin Military Cemetary in Estonia
#53

Bronze Soldier Statue in Tallinn

Estonia

In late April 2007, a series of violent street protests involving arson and looting erupted over plans to relocate a bronze statue of a Red Army soldier from a park in central Tallinn to a military ce… Read More

Bronze Soldier Statue in Tallinn

In late April 2007, a series of violent street protests involving arson and looting erupted over plans to relocate a bronze statue of a Red Army soldier from a park in central Tallinn to a military ce… Read More
Two statues of human figures against a background of the Kars mountains
#155

Monument to Humanity in Kars

Turkey

The Monument to Humanity was a 30-metre statue that played a prominent role in the skyline of the city of Kars. In the wake of the 2011 Turkish General Election, the then-Prime Minister Recep Tayyip E… Read More

Monument to Humanity in Kars

The Monument to Humanity was a 30-metre statue that played a prominent role in the skyline of the city of Kars. In the wake of the 2011 Turkish General Election, the then-Prime Minister Recep Tayyip E… Read More
Statues of Sir Stamford Raffles, Munshi Abdullah, Tan Tock Seng, Naraina Pillai and Sang Nula Utama on pedestals at the Rafflers' landing site in Singapore
#138

Sir Stamford Raffles Statue on Singapore River

Singapore

In 2019, Singapore commemorated its bicentennial and the 200th anniversary of the arrival of Sir Stamford Raffles to its shores. The innovative approach to addressing the statue of Raffles and the sta… Read More

Sir Stamford Raffles Statue on Singapore River

In 2019, Singapore commemorated its bicentennial and the 200th anniversary of the arrival of Sir Stamford Raffles to its shores. The innovative approach to addressing the statue of Raffles and the sta… Read More
Section of the National Stadium of Chilie in Santiago
#29

The Stands of Dignity and Escotilla 8 in Santiago

Chile

Following the military coup against Salvador Allende in September 1973, the Chilean Armed Forces transformed the former stadium of Estadio Nacional Julio Martínez Prádanos into the country’s largest d… Read More

The Stands of Dignity and Escotilla 8 in Santiago

Following the military coup against Salvador Allende in September 1973, the Chilean Armed Forces transformed the former stadium of Estadio Nacional Julio Martínez Prádanos into the country’s largest d… Read More