Case Studies

To date, we have identified more than three hundred cases on five continents. Case Studies relate to a wide array of different historical legacies including: Colonialism, Enslavement, Racism, Fascism, Sectarianism, Anti-Semitism, Communism, Authoritarianism, Sexual Violence and others. To address these oft contested legacies, decision-makers and other parties have chosen various Remedies. This can take the form of complete removal of the monument, artistic intervention to alter the statue, or increased signage for contextualisation.

Case Studies focus on the historical background, history of the contestation, the decision-making process and the remedy employed. Once completed by our Researchers, Case Studies are internally reviewed by the Contested Histories Team before being sent out for external expert review by our Academic Committee, before being published. They are revised when there are new developments relating to the case to give the most accurate and up-to-date overview as possible.

Statue of Lenin extending his hand surrounded by busts of Lenin on the ground at Grūto parkas in Lithuania
#96

Grūtas Sculpture Park in Druskininkai

Lithuania

The Grūtas Park was created to collect and display Soviet-era monuments that had been removed from public spaces following Lithuanian independence. This case study provides an example of an effective… Read More

Grūtas Sculpture Park in Druskininkai

The Grūtas Park was created to collect and display Soviet-era monuments that had been removed from public spaces following Lithuanian independence. This case study provides an example of an effective… Read More
Statue of Mahatma Gandhi with staff in front of University of Ghana
#72

University of Ghana Gandhi Statue in Accra

Ghana

In June 2016, a statue of Mahatma Gandhi was gifted to the University of Ghana in Accra, by the Indian President. Shortly after, staff and students at the University circulated a petition calling for… Read More

University of Ghana Gandhi Statue in Accra

In June 2016, a statue of Mahatma Gandhi was gifted to the University of Ghana in Accra, by the Indian President. Shortly after, staff and students at the University circulated a petition calling for… Read More
Statue of emperor Napoleon's wife with head broken off in La Savane park on the French island of Martinique
#100

Statue of Joséphine de Beauharnais in Fort-de-France

Martinique

The statue of Napoleon’s first wife, first Empress of the French, lingered beheaded in Martinique, one of the remaining overseas territories of France. In July 2020 the Statue was permanently de… Read More

Statue of Joséphine de Beauharnais in Fort-de-France

The statue of Napoleon’s first wife, first Empress of the French, lingered beheaded in Martinique, one of the remaining overseas territories of France. In July 2020 the Statue was permanently de… Read More
One of the blood river monuments, framed by the sky, features an open stone wagon as an entry.
#141

Ncome and Blood River Monuments on Ncombe River in Nquthu-Dundee

South Africa

On the 16th of December 1838 the infamous Battle of Blood River on the banks of the Ncome River between Zulu warriors and Afrikaans Voortrekkers took place. Commemoration and mythologization of the ba… Read More

Ncome and Blood River Monuments on Ncombe River in Nquthu-Dundee

On the 16th of December 1838 the infamous Battle of Blood River on the banks of the Ncome River between Zulu warriors and Afrikaans Voortrekkers took place. Commemoration and mythologization of the ba… Read More
The Memorial to Comfort Women, with a woman sitting down, covered in fresh flowers with explanatory papers and plaques in front.
#224

Statue of Peace in Berlin

Germany

The ‘Statue of Peace’ in Berlin-Moabit commemorates ‘comfort women’, a euphemism for women who were sexually enslaved by the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II. The memorial urges historical j… Read More

Statue of Peace in Berlin

The ‘Statue of Peace’ in Berlin-Moabit commemorates ‘comfort women’, a euphemism for women who were sexually enslaved by the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II. The memorial urges historical j… Read More
The equestrian statue of General Julio Roca, with office buildings behind it, and a street full of people in front.
#4

Statue of President General Julio Argentino Roca in Buenos Aires

Argentina

Former Argentine President Julio Argentino Roca remains a divisive and controversial figure in his home country. Despite forging the foundations of the modern Argentine state, Roca’s campaigns in Pata… Read More

Statue of President General Julio Argentino Roca in Buenos Aires

Former Argentine President Julio Argentino Roca remains a divisive and controversial figure in his home country. Despite forging the foundations of the modern Argentine state, Roca’s campaigns in Pata… Read More
Close up view of the tower of peace
#89

Tower of Peace in Miyazaki

Japan

Built in 1938, the Hakkō Ichiu Tower in the Miyazaki prefecture was meant to embody the Japanese spirit. The stone reliefs of the Tower, as well as the carving ‘Hakkō Ichiu’ represent a world under Ja… Read More

Tower of Peace in Miyazaki

Built in 1938, the Hakkō Ichiu Tower in the Miyazaki prefecture was meant to embody the Japanese spirit. The stone reliefs of the Tower, as well as the carving ‘Hakkō Ichiu’ represent a world under Ja… Read More
Full shot view of Christopher Columbus Statue in Parque Colón, taken from the street with plaque visible
#4

Columbus Monument in Buenos Aires

Argentina

The Monument to Christopher Columbus has caused great controversy as part of the heritage and historical memory of Argentina. Opinions were divided between his legacy as a discoverer of the ‘New World… Read More

Columbus Monument in Buenos Aires

The Monument to Christopher Columbus has caused great controversy as part of the heritage and historical memory of Argentina. Opinions were divided between his legacy as a discoverer of the ‘New World… Read More
umn of Strength in San Francisco consists of three women grasping hands with their backs towards one another.
#205

‘Comfort Women’ Column of Strength in San Francisco, California

United States of America

In 2017, a civil society organisation unveiled a San Francisco monument dedicated to the “comfort women,” women compelled to provide sexual services for the Japanese military during World War II. The… Read More

‘Comfort Women’ Column of Strength in San Francisco, California

In 2017, a civil society organisation unveiled a San Francisco monument dedicated to the “comfort women,” women compelled to provide sexual services for the Japanese military during World War II. The… Read More
Two whales, as part of the Australia cook landing sculptures.
#9

Captain Cook Landing Sculptures in Botany Bay, Sydney

Australia

Captain James Cook’s landing site at Kamay Botany Bay has been a focus of public debate, contestation, commemoration, celebration, and mourning in Australia since the 1860s. The recent controversies o… Read More

Captain Cook Landing Sculptures in Botany Bay, Sydney

Captain James Cook’s landing site at Kamay Botany Bay has been a focus of public debate, contestation, commemoration, celebration, and mourning in Australia since the 1860s. The recent controversies o… Read More
Stone memorial in Jedwabne dedicated to murdered Jews with Hebrew inscription and pebbles on top
#125

Jedwabne Pogrom Memorial in Jedwabne

Poland

The Jedwabne pogrom memorial was renewed in 2001, following controversies surrounding who the perpetrators of the massacre were. This case study explores moral questions over the commemoration and mem… Read More

Jedwabne Pogrom Memorial in Jedwabne

The Jedwabne pogrom memorial was renewed in 2001, following controversies surrounding who the perpetrators of the massacre were. This case study explores moral questions over the commemoration and mem… Read More
The Statue of Haile Selassie, on the day of it's unveiling ceremony.
#54

Haile Selassie Statue at the African Union Headquarters in Addis Ababa

Ethiopia

The 32nd African Union Summit in Addis Ababa in February 2019 was opened with the unveiling of a new statue of Ethiopia’s last emperor Haile Selassie. The statue, in honour of his founding role… Read More

Haile Selassie Statue at the African Union Headquarters in Addis Ababa

The 32nd African Union Summit in Addis Ababa in February 2019 was opened with the unveiling of a new statue of Ethiopia’s last emperor Haile Selassie. The statue, in honour of his founding role… Read More