Two statues of human figures against a background of the Kars mountains

Monument to Humanity in Kars


By Jade

The Monument to Humanity was a 30-metre statue that played a prominent role in the skyline of the city of Kars. In the wake of the 2011 Turkish General Election, the then-Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan paid a visit to the city of Kars and, during a campaign stop, declared… Read More

Statue of Francis Light with arm on hip

Francis Light Statue in George Town in Penang


By Jade

In the wake of the Black Lives Matter (BLM) protests of 2020, the statue of the founder of the British colony of Penang, Francis Light came under increased scrutiny and public vandalisation, which sparked both heated and starkly polarized debates on social media. This case offers insight into Malaysian decision-makers… Read More

Statue of Stalin infront of Museum in Gori, Georgia

Stalin Statue in Gori


By Jade

The removal of the Stalin statue from the central square in Gori represents a top-down policy implementation approach to a contested historical monument. Such implementations of Georgia’s Freedom Charter illustrate the legal framework under which symbols, monuments and names of sites related to the Soviet past become reconfigured. However, positions… Read More

Statue in Peru of circles of pebbles in the middle of park with hunched figure in centre

Peru: The Battlefield of Memories

By Javier Lizarzaburu 24 August 2021

There is no monument more contested in Lima than El Ojo que Llora (The Eye That Cries). Almost from the beginning it has been opposed and vandalized. A few years ago, the serenity and beauty of the area, in one of the main parks in the city, was compromised when… Read More

The Memorial to Comfort Women, with a woman sitting down, covered in fresh flowers with explanatory papers and plaques in front.

Statue of Peace in Berlin


By Contested Histories Initiative May 2021

The ‘Statue of Peace’ in Berlin-Moabit commemorates ‘comfort women’, a euphemism for women who were sexually enslaved by the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II. The memorial urges historical justice and reconciliation. After its unveiling in September 2020, the installation drew criticism from Japanese officials. Although the Berlin-Mitte district… Read More

Statue in Peru of circles of pebbles in the middle of park with hunched figure in centre.

The Eye that Cries Memorial in Lima


By Contested Histories Initiative May 2021

The Eye that Cries commemorates all victims of Peru’s two-decade-long internal conflict, regardless of political affiliation. In 2006, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights held in the Miguel Castro-Castro Prison v. Peru case that the names of 42 murdered Shining Path members, widely considered to be perpetrators in the conflict,… Read More